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Mughul Empire: List Of Mughal Emperors

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List Of Mughal Emperors

Emperor Birth Reign Period Death Notes
Babur 23 February 1483 1526–1530 26 December 1530 Was a direct descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother and was descendant of Timur through his father. Founded the Mughal Empire after his victories at the Battle of Panipat 1526 and the Battle of Khanwa.
Humayun 6 March 1508 1530–1540 Jan 1556 Reign interrupted by Suri Dynasty. Youth and inexperience at ascension led to his being regarded as a less effective ruler than usurper, Sher Shah Suri.
Sher Shah Suri 1472 1540–1545 May 1545 Deposed Humayun and led the Suri Dynasty.
Islam Shah Suri c.1500 1545–1554 1554 2nd and last ruler of the Suri Dynasty, claims of sons Sikandar and Adil Shah were eliminated by Humayun's restoration.
Humayun 6 March 1508 1555–1556 Jan 1556 Restored rule was more unified and effective than initial reign of 1530–1540; left unified empire for his son, Akbar.
Akbar 14 November 1542 1556–1605 27 October 1605 He and Bairam Khan defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat and later won famous victories during the Siege of Chittorgarh and the Siege of Ranthambore; He greatly expanded the Empire and is regarded as the most illustrious ruler of the Mughal Empire as he set up the empire's various institutions; he married Mariam-uz-Zamani, a Rajput princess. One of his most famous construction marvels was the Lahore Fort.
Jahangir Oct 1569 1605–1627 1627 Jahangir set the precedent for sons rebelling against their emperor fathers. Opened first relations with the British East India Company. Reportedly was an alcoholic, and his wife Empress Noor Jahan became the real power behind the throne and competently ruled in his place.
Shah Jahan 5 January 1592 1627–1658 1666 Under him, Mughal art and architecture reached their zenith; constructed the Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, Jahangir mausoleum, and Shalimar Gardens in Lahore. Deposed by his son Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb 21 October 1618 1658–1707 3 March 1707 He reinterpreted Islamic law and presented the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri; he captured the diamond mines of the Sultanate of Golconda; he spent the major part of his last 27 years in the war with the Maratha rebels; at its zenith, his conquests expanded the empire to its greatest extent; the over-stretched empire was controlled by Mansabdars, and faced challenges after his death. He is known to have transcribed copies of the Qur'an using his own styles of calligraphy. He died during a campaign against the ravaging Marathas in the Deccan.
Bahadur Shah I 14 October 1643 1707–1712 Feb 1712 First of the Mughal emperors to preside over an empire ravaged by uncontrollable revolts. After his reign, the empire went into steady decline due to the lack of leadership qualities among his immediate successors.
Jahandar Shah 1664 1712–1713 Feb 1713 Was an unpopular incompetent titular figurehead;
Furrukhsiyar 1683 1713–1719 1719 His reign marked the ascendancy of the manipulative Syed Brothers, execution of the rebellious Banda. In 1717 he granted a Firman to the English East India Company granting them duty-free trading rights in Bengal. The Firman was repudiated by the notable Murshid Quli Khan the Mughal appointed ruler of Bengal.
Rafi Ul-Darjat Unknown 1719 1719  
Rafi Ud-Daulat Unknown 1719 1719  
Nikusiyar Unknown 1719 1743  
Muhammad Ibrahim Unknown 1720 1744  
Muhammad Shah 1702 1719–1720, 1720–1748 1748 Got rid of the Syed Brothers. Tried to counter the emergence of the Marathas but his empire disintegrated. Suffered the invasion of Nadir-Shah of Persia in 1739.
Ahmad Shah Bahadur 1725 1748–54 1775
Alamgir II 1699 1754–1759 1759 He was murdered according by the Vizier Imad-ul-Mulk and Maratha associate Sadashivrao Bhau.
Shah Jahan III Unknown In 1759 1772 Was ordained to the imperial throne as a result of the intricacies in Delhi with the help of Imad-ul-Mulk. He was later deposed by Maratha Sardars.
Shah Alam II 1728 1759–1806 1806 He was proclaimed as Mughal Emperor by the Marathas. Later, he was again recognised as the Mughal Emperor by Ahmad Shah Durrani after the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. 1764 saw the defeat of the combined forces of Mughal Emperor, Nawab of Oudh & Nawab of Bengal and Bihar at the hand of East India Company at the Battle of Buxar. Following this defeat, Shah Alam II left Delhi for Allahabad, ending hostilities with the Treaty of Allahabad 1765. Shah Alam II was reinstated to the throne of Delhi in 1772 by Mahadaji Shinde under the protection of the Marathas. He was a de jure emperor. During his reign in 1793 British East India company abolished Nizamat Mughal suzerainty and took control of the former Mughal province of Bengal marking the beginning of British reign in parts of Eastern India officially.
Akbar Shah II 1760 1806–1837 1837 He became a British pensioner after the defeat of the Maratha's in the third Anglo-Maratha war who were till then the protector of the Mughal throne. Under East India company's protection, his imperial name was removed from the official coinage after a brief dispute with the British East India Company;

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