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List Of Current Pretenders: Europe


Europe


State Pretender Since House Claim Succession Abolition Refs
Albania
Leka Zogu Grandson of King Zog I 1928–1939. Hereditary de facto 1939
de jure 1944
Karl von Habsburg Emperor and King Charles I & IV 1916–1918. Hereditary 1918

Italy

Until the mid-nineteenth century, the Italian peninsula comprised a number of states, some of which were monarchies. During the Italian unification, the monarchs of such agglomerated states lost their sovereignty and their titles became purely ceremonial. The resultant throne of the Kingdom of Italy was held by the former king of Sardinia.
State Pretender Since House Claim Succession Abolition Refs
Amedeo Savoy Descendant of King Vittorio Emanuele II 1861–1878. Hereditary 1946
Vittorio Emanuele IV Heir apparent of King Umberto II 1946.
Pre-unification
Etruria
Carlos Bourbon-Parma Descendant of King Ludovico II 1803–1807. Hereditary 1807
Mantua
Maurizio Gonzaga Descendant of Marquis Federico I 1478–1484. Hereditary 1708
Modena
Lorenzo Habsburg-Lorraine Relative of Franz Ferdinand, adopted heir of Duke Francesco V 1846–1859. Hereditary 1859
Naples
Joachim Murat Descendant of King Gioacchino I 1808–1815. Hereditary 1816
Carlos Bourbon-Parma Great-grandson of Duke Roberto I 1854–1859. Hereditary 1859
Tuscany
Sigismondo Habsburg-Lorraine Descendant of Grand Duke Ferdinando IV 1859. Hereditary 1859
Carlos of Calabria Bourbon Descendant of King Ferdinando II 1830–1859. Hereditary 1861
Carlo of Castro
Others
Tavolara
Tonino

Others

The Chiefs of the Name are the hereditary chieftains of the Irish clans, who are directly descended from the Gaelic royal families which ruled in parts of Ireland until the beginning of the seventeenth century. Most prominent among these are:

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  1. List of current pretenders (overview)
  2. Africa
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